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Respond to following  3 discussion separately  on (What is a Geographic Information System (GIS) and how is it related to Transportation Economics? What can GIS do to help transportation economists to save money? What impact might GIS have on future projects in transportation?) Response should be 100 or more and include direct questions.

1. Rodrique, (2017, para 1) defines Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as an information system specializing in the input, management, analysis, and reporting of geographical (spatially related) information. Just like information system GIS enables users to analyze data to understand and make a tangible geographical decision. Sinha and Labi (2007, p.484) posit that GIS enables increasingly precise and comprehensive representation and analysis of natural and human-made land features and activities. That is to say, GIS provides users with the opportunity to manipulate both man-made and natural spatial features to their advantage.
The main concept of economics lies in our search for how to use limited resources to achieve maximum satisfaction. This is not far from the relevance of GIS. According to Rodrique (2017) Geographic Information Systems for Transportation (GIS-T) refer to the principle and applications of geographic information technologies to transportation problems. With the help of GIS-T transportation stakeholders are able to determine the demand for their services in many areas, hence providing the recommended supply. Sinha and Labi (2007, p. 486) argue that GIS used in transportation enables demand predictions; identifying the extent and severity of air, water, noise, and ecological impact violations; land-use, and economic development impacts.
GIS use is eminent in transportation economists decision-making. With the help of GIS transportation, economists will be able to make a profitable investment. GIS will provide the information about the current demand for transportation services and all other spatial factors that will affect the transportation industry, therefore, giving transportation economists the information to make a sound investment decision. Furthermore, GIS can help transportation economists to determine how safe their activity is to the environment. The safeness of their activity can affect their profitability. According to Sinha & Labi (2007, 488) buffer analysis (a type of GIS software) enables transportation industries to determine the impact of the transportation facility or intervention at the proximal areas in terms of performance measures such as travel time, congestion, noise impact, emissions, ecological, cultural, and socioeconomic impact.
            GIS will be very beneficial in future projects in the transportation industry. First, information derived from GIS can be useful in visual impact analysis. In determining how effective a project is for both the environment and the users’ information like traffic, pollution, and accessibility will be relevant. Moreover, the search for ways to deliver products as timely as possible can be closer if GIS is enhanced and incorporated in all aspects of transportation industry decision-making. This will be though learning from our current shipping methodology and using GIS software to manipulate the input for the desired output.

2. According to the U.S. Geological Service, a Geographic Information System or GIS is a computer system that can be used to analyze and display geographically reference information (Sexton, 2012). The National Geographic describes it as a computer system that is used to capture, store, check, and display data relating to the earths surface (National Geographic Society, 2012). Basically, it is a mapping software or at least that is about all we used Arc GIS for in college. A GIS system can add or remove layers of a map based on the users needs. These layers can be almost anything from waterways and elevations, to geographic names and roads or boundaries. For example, the National Map has eight layers; transportation networks, structures, Orthoimagery Image data of the earths surface), Land cover, hydrography, geographic names, elevation, and boundaries (Sexton, 2012).
A GIS can be used in the transportation industry to map future industrial areas or other construction projects to see how the surrounding area will be affected. It can be used to plan pipeline routes or other utilities and roads to ensure that the projects are done using a few materials, landscape changes, and shortest route possible. Through the use of a GIS, we can make better decisions about how to plan or change a transportation system and potentially use other models to validate that the new design will be more efficient or better for the environment. The possibilities are almost endless for how a GIS can be integrated.

3. What is a Geographic Information System (GIS) and how is it related to Transportation Economics?
According to Shaw & Rodrigue (n.d.), GIS is an information system specializing in the input, management, analysis, and reporting of geographical information (para. 1).  There is a specific GIS that involved transportation issues and that is GIS-T.  there are three categories that the GIS-T looks at: data representation, analysis and modeling, and applications.  Analysis and modeling are going to
What can GIS do to help transportation economists to save money?
The most important purpose of the GIS is the use of visualization through maps (Paul, 2018).  By using the GIS and the maps can help with the more real time data needed to make transport plans to ensure that will make the movement of gear and goods in the most efficient and economical way.  With the use of GIS and GPS systems you can get real time data from off-site locations, this also allows for immediate attention if it is granted.  The data that is pulled by using the GIS-T helps with analyzing areas and assessing cost estimates for the work that is required or routes that are needed to go from point A to point B.  Determining the route, you may be able to save the company money on gas and maintenance for the vehicles. 
What impact might GIS have on future projects in transportation?
GIS can be used to manage the maintenance of the highway system.  This system helps with the management and ability to benefit from it by not failing costs and increase ease (Paul, 2018).  Route planning is a project that can be done by utilizing the GIS.  According to Paul (2018), GIS can help transportation planners to integrate agency-wide information to achieve better operational efficiencies and results (para. 12). 

 

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