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Neuromarketing and neuroscience applications in the area of sustainability

Introduction
Neuroscience has developed increased popularity in recent decades across the globe as various fields started embracing neuroscience as a scientific base that unites multidisciplinary research modalities. The term neuroculture is a novel scientific branch merging neuroscience with other sciences, arts or humanities that includes neurophilosophy, neuropsychology, neuroinformatics, neurogenetics, neurobiology, neurosociology, neuropedagogy, neuroforensics and neuromarketing.
Javor, A., Koller, M., Lee, N. et al. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology. BMC Neurol 13, 13 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2377-13-13
Consumer neuroscience, also refers to as Neuromarketing, is the new hype amongst marketing scholars that originated from the limited capabilities of conventional marketing research methods and behavioral measures in providing implicit insights into consumption behavior (Plassmann et al. 2015). Accelerating innovations in neuroimaging and the advancing of computing technology provided accurate measures and high predictability of consumer behavior in response to marketing stimuli. Measuring methods include electroencephalography (EEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), facial coding, eye tracking, biometrics and psychometrics (Falk et al. 2015). Neuromarketing tools can be divided into neurofeedback and biofeedback. Neurofeedback tools include functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG), positron emission tomography (PET), steady-state topography (SST), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG). In biofeedback, eye tracking, facial decoding and GSR can be highlighted. (Oliveira and Giraldi Moura Engracia 2017).
Environmental concerns and consumer demand for environmentally friendly products have led to the emergence of a new marketing philosophy called green marketing. The great forces behind the green marketing are the demand for green products coupled with concern for the environment.. Green marketing is a broader concept that covers much more aspects such as consumer goods, industrial goods and services as well (Polonsky, 1994; Ottman et al., 2006; Chen, 2009). The ultimate goal for green marketing is to create two bottom lines; the first is for profit and the second for social responsibility (Mourad et al., 2012). Many hundreds of papers from multiple disciplines have examined various stages in the green purchase decision making process. A green product is one that can satisfy the consumers need without causing damage to the environment while contributing to make the planet earth more sustainable (Shamdasami et al., 1993). As a general rule, green products use safer, recyclable raw materials and try to use as little packaging as possible (Chen & Chai, 2010). Joshi & Rahman (2015) suggest examples of green products such as organic products, energy – saving lamps, eco – friendly machines or natural products.

This chapter aims to understand green behavior and to understand how the marketing mix of food brands can work to encourage more consumers to buy green and work towards a more sustainable environment. This chapter intends to understand the motivations of individuals behind the concern about the environment and the purchase of green products; to understand the determinants of purchasing green food; to know the profile of the green consumer; to understand the reality of brands in Portugal in what concerns green marketing. The chapter will be developed using a qualitative methodology, through in – depth interviews (semi – structured) to companies that sell biological and wellness products. This chapter focuses on green marketing and consumer behavior (e.g. a Portuguese context). The authors also consider some implications for management, as well as give suggestions for future lines of research.
In year 2020, Pagan et. al published a pioneer research study titled Application of Neuroscience in the Area of Sustainability: Mapping the Territory  Despite its importance, in the area of Sustainability, no literature review research has been found that described as some tools derived from neuroscience, more specifically eye tracking and electroencephalography (EEG), which are among the most used tools
the brain and visual mechanisms that are related to sustainable consumption and sustainable decision-making, enabling them to develop their products and communication more effectively. Additionally, future research in the area is suggested.

 

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