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Three Imperatives for Managers

      Three imperatives per submission

      One paragraph per each imperative (= 3 paras, total, for the submission)

      Each para bolded with a single imperative. First three words should be, “The effective manager”.

      Each imperative must contain a reference to a READ ONE reading (yours or other) for the week, applied to the case for the week

      Feel free to cite to any additional cases or readings we have discussed

      Block paragraphs, no breaks.


The effective manager tests their presumptions and assumptions. As Neustadt and May delineate, there are three kinds of presumptions that leaders must be cautious of ignoring: maybes, if/thens and knowns. When creating a plan, an effective manager must know when they are making assumptions about the current situation, the cause/effect relationships they are relying on, and their values in determining a course of action. Otherwise they might not recognize the importance of shifting circumstances to whether or not their plan will be successful. For President Kennedy, the situation around the Bay of Pigs kept evolving prior to the mission being launched, but nothing changed the teams determination that the operation was sure to succeed

The effective manager surrounds him/herself with trusted agents in areas that arent their expertise. We have seen throughout our case studies leaders (Miller, Bratton, Krieger) bringing in key advisors for areas that arent their core competence. Krieger had a military counter-part, Bratton had Maple (crime) and Miller (media). While President Kennedy had his share of trusted advisors; none of them had competencies in military or covert planning. The situation was further exacerbated by the newness of his administration and having an incomplete understanding of the CIA as Neustadt and May articulate in Placing Organizations. This lead to miscommunication and a lack of situational understanding.


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